Enumeration Cheatsheets

Enumerating SMB, RPC, and NetBIOS for Pentesting (Ports 445, 135-139)

This post contains various commands and methods for performing enumeration of the SMB, RPC, and NetBIOS services. This article will be expanded upon as time goes on.

Using NMAP

Scan for popular RCE exploits.
sudo nmap -p 139,445 --script smb-vuln* <ip-addr> -oA nmap/smb-vuln

Identify the SMB/OS version.
nmap -v -p 139,445 --script=smb-os-discovery.nse <ip-addr>

Enumerate users once you have valid credentials:
sudo nmap --script=smb-enum-users -p 445 --script-args smbuser=<user>,smbpass=<password>


To scan a subnet for list of hostnames:
nbtscan -v <targetRange>


To list out the shares and associated permissions with Anonymous Access:
smbmap -H <ip-addr>

To list out shares recursively from hosts in a file and enumerate OS:

smbmap.py --host-file <targets.txt> -v -R -g

To list out the shares recursively:
smbmap -R <sharename> -H <ip-addr>

To list shares as an authenticated user:
smbmap -d <domain> -u <username> -p <password> -H <ip-addr>

To list the shares as a Guest user, just provide a username that doesn’t exist.
smbmap -u DoesNotExist -H <ip-addr>

To download a particular file.
smbmap -R <sharename> -H <ip-addr> -A <filename> -q


To list out the shares:
smbclient -L \\\\<ip-addr>

To connect to shares:
sudo smbclient \\\\<ip-addr>\\<share>

Downloading files:
Once connected, you can download files. You’ll want to disable interactive prompts and turn recursive mode ON.

smb: /> prompt
smb: /> recurse

smb: /> mget *


Testing for Null or Authenticated Sessions:
To test for null sessions, you can use the following command. If it connects, then you’ll be able to issue rpc client commands for further enumeration.
rpcclient -U "" -N [ip]

Have valid credentials? Use them to connect:
rpcclient -U <user>

Once connected, there are various queries you can run.

To enumerate printers:

To enumerate users and groups:

The above command will output user/group RIDs. You can pass those into further queries like:
querygroup <RID>
querygroupmem <RID>
queryuser <RID>


The following command will attempt to establish a null session with the target and then use RPC to extract useful information.
enum4linux -a [ip]

Example output is long, but some highlights to look for:

  • Listing of file shares and printers.
  • Domain/Workgroup information.
  • Password policy information.
  • RID cycling output to enumerate users and groups.


Bruteforcing credentials:
use auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_login
set PASS_FILE /usr/share/seclists/Passwords/Common-Credentials/best15.txt
set USER_FILE /usr/share/seclists/Usernames/top-usernames-shortlist.txt
set RHOSTS <ipAddr>

Mounting SMB Shares in Linux

The following command will mount the remote file-share to /mnt/smb/ (this directory must exist first) and prompt you for the password.
mount -t cifs -o username=<user> //<targetIP>/<shareName> /mnt/smb/

Another way to mount a share from Linux is as follows:
sudo mount.cifs //<targetIP>/share /mnt/share username=,password=


Viewing file permissions, owners, and ACLs of shares.
smbcacls -N '//<targetIP>/<shareName>' /<childDir>

To use this recursively, you can use a for loop in Bash.
cd <mountedShare>
for i in $(ls); do echo $1; smbcacls -N '//<targetIP>/<shareName>' /$i; done

Enumeration from Windows Utilities

To get the Name Table:
nbtstat -A <targetIP>

To see a list of running shares:
net view <targetIP>

You can map a share to a drive letter, such as K:
net use K: \\<targetIP>\share

Testing for null session:
net use \\<targetIP>\IPC$ "" /u:""

Various Additional Tools:

  • WinFingerPrint
  • Nat10Bin
  • DumpSec

Gaining a Shell

Once you have valid credentials on the machine, or a valid NTLM hash, you can leverage the following guide to gain a shell.

Enumerating SMB Version

If your tools aren’t working to enumerate the version, you can establish a connection via smbclient and then extract the Samba/SMB version through a packetcapture. To automate the process, you can use the script available at https://github.com/rewardone/OSCPRepo/blob/master/scripts/recon_enum/smbver.sh

Troubleshooting Common Errors:

protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_DISCONNECTED

This error occurs because your modern tools are not able to communicate to older, insecure protocols. You just need to tell your smbd daemon to use the weaker and more insecure protocols.

Note: If you are using smbd in real life for file and printer sharing, I don’t recommend leaving you system like this.

Open the following files in your favorite text editor.


Find the Global section, and add the following line.

client min protocol = LANMAN1

With that line added, restart your smdb service and you should now be able to connect.

service smbd restart

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